Annual Constitutional Address of The President of the Republic of Somaliland H.E. Muse Bihi Abdi


Annual Constitutional Address of
The President of the Republic of Somaliland

H.E. Muse Bihi Abdi
Monday, March 8, 2021

 Chairman of the of the Parliament
 Honorable Members of Parliament
 Chairman of the Supreme Court
 Commanders of the National Armed Forces
 The People of Somaliland wherever they are

Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is a great honor and privilege to be in the Parliament of the Republic of
Somaliland to deliver the 2021 annual address to the nation.
The year 2020 began with a global virus that affected the whole world and at same
time made total change in the way societies live. More than, 2.5 million people lost
their lives and millions in different parts of the world had been affected by the
virus. But it was a year that ended with a low effect and great success achieved in
science and vaccines.
2021 was a year of stability and peace for Somaliland. It was a year that we have
realized great success politically and diplomatically and our case has found
different international forums where we can present them.
Last year, in the whole region where we live and the rest of the entire world there
was great change in the socio-economic, military, and political alliances which
transformed the political and military features of the world. There were conflicts
and wars which had great damage in many parts of the world. It is important to
remind ourselves that these wars manifested the power of more than technology
and the change they brought on the methods and tactics of war.


It was a year when an unprecedented election and great distortions happened in the
Unites States which was the greatest trial and obstacles that Western democracy
and elections had to face.
For Somaliland, the year was a great achievement for realizing a total political
peace and security. The government, the political parties, the Electoral
Commission, Parliament and the people of Somaliland united to holdthe dual
election of the House of Representatives and Local Government elections.
 Economic
In regard to the economical categories of the world, Somaliland is considered to be
one of the low economy countries. Although that exists, it’s continuously
economic development is being realized by the efforts of the different governments
efforts and businessmen who invested the country. The government under my
leadership is making great effort to realize economic growth.
The four pillars of our economic:
 Revenue collected by Public Financial Institutions
 Investment and economic development by businessmen who have the
main economy in their hands.
 Somaliland Diaspora’s support and the investment in the country
 Foreign investment and international aid.
51.67% of our income and the budget passed by the House of the Representatives
are used for national security, defense and salary for civil servants. The rest of the
budget is used for basic infrastructures and different activities such as quest for
recognition, job creation, development projects, infrastructure, education, health
and access for drinkable water etc.
The majority of international aids we receive are humanitarian and emergency
support, as well as pilot projects. The political status for the country and sabotage
by the government of Mogadishu are great obstacles to get foreign aiid and major
international investment.
Ladies and Gentlemen,


Our constitution pinpoints the structure and the economic administration of the
country. Article 12 of the constitutions clearly provides that the government is
responsible to establish the economic policy of the country which is based on free
market and cooperation with the private sector, Public property commonly owned
by the nation, Public assets and foreign investment.
According to the constitution, it is imperative that the economy policy of the
country doesn’t allow the wealth and resources of the country to be in the hands of
a group(s) or individuals in order to avoid the creation of economic classes which
divides the people to haves and have not’s. Similarly, Article 12 of the constitution
promulgate that land is a public property owned by the nation, and the state
To overcome economic difficulties such as unemployment and to develop
economic infrastructures the government will implement laws to achieve vision
and mission as enshrined in the constitution.
Since, our reclamation of independence the revenue system of the country
depended on customs and tax. This is an outdated system of taxation which cannot
be depended on. 78% of our budget depends on revenue collected from customs,
while 22% of the budget is from Inland Revenue. As nation, to be self-sufficient
the government is trying to change the former revenue system. We are a nation
whose income is low and have low savings.
Ladies and Gentlemen
Last year, Somaliland had to overcome many major obstacles which had great
impact on our economy such as
– Covid-19 which had an impact on millions of people globally.
– Ban of livestock export.
– Effect of locust on our agricultural production.
Although these obstacles existed, the government had made great efforts to
develop and improve the economy such as:
 106 projects were financed from the national budget at the cost of 173
billion SL shilling. All those projects were implemented via tender.


 In 2021 our plan is to implement projects at the cost of 273 billion SL
 Development projects at the cost of 163.6 billion SL Shillings were realized
by foreign aid we received. We thank our friends for their supports and at
the same time, we inform them that Somaliland needs more support.
 The number of civil servants increased by 10%. In the last three years the
number of civil servants increased by 5,150 people which is an increase of
 Although the government employed so many Civil Servants, this is a very
low number compared to unemployment in the country.
 Looking at the GDP, the government manages less than 10%. We can
deduce that the budget of the government cannot cover unemployment and
poverty alone. This shows that a great responsibility of job creation and
development of the economy depends on the free market as mentioned by
the constitution.
 The value of Somaliland shilling is current around 8,500 SL shillings for the
dollar. Inflation has decreased by 3.5% which is the lowest in recent years.
 There are four private banks in the country. The people have deposit of 200
million dollars. Last year the four banks have lent 70 million dollars, which
means that they have 130 million dollars in the treasury which is not being
used. This money which is idle can be used for developing industries,
constructing modern hospitals and creating jobs.
 We don’t have international banks in the country. Although our local banks
have their problems, we encourage them to target working like international
banks which uses the deposit they have.
 We established The Institute of Agricultural Research with the aim of
modernizing and developing farming and irrigation in the country to achieve
self-sufficient on agricultural production.
 We are aware that the original seeds of our crops have vanished and the as
such we have succeeded in reviving 23 different types of seeds which were
popular in the country. We aim to establish a National Seed Bank.
 We have also vaccinated 3, 000,000 heads and 81, 000 nomadic families
have benefited from thi.
 Construction of fishing port at Maydh began with 5 million dollar.


 The first phase of 400 meter construction of Berbera port is 100%
complete. The port will have the capacity of serving 450 thousand
containers per year, while its current capacity at present is 150 thousand
containers. This will be an increase of 67%. Modernization of the port of
Berbera targets serving the whole region.
 Berbera airport is being internationalized this year and will serve goods and
the people of the region.
 The construction of Berbera corridor although delayed is moving at good
 252 km of Buroa-Erigavo road construction is complete. Only 32 km is
remaining and this will be completed soon
 The 53 km Odweyne-Buroa road construction has begun and will be
completed very soon “Insha Allah.”
 Construction of Lowyacaddo-Borama road which is being financed by
African Development Bank will begin after the survey is completed.
 Tarmac road connecting Las-Anod airport with the centre of the town has
been completed.
Ladies and Gentlemen
Somaliland is a rich country which can realize self-sufficiency in economy if we
If the government becomes guardian of the security,
If the government is the major job creator,
If the government is the main service provider
Yet, there is unemployment and the basic needs of the society which needs to be
taken care of as a nation.

 Public Services
 Education: We have built 76 schools, 400 teachers have completed their
trainings and 670 others under training.
 Health: 589 thousand children have been vaccinated.


 1.5 million Patients were treated in public hospitals and that is 12% more
than last year.
 There is an increase of mental illness, diabetic, hypertension, heart disease,
cancer and kidney diseases. This is due to climate change, way of life and
socio-economic of the society.
 Last year, according to Ministry of Health, the number of patients who went
abroad for treatment were 5,600 people with an average expense of 10
thousand dollars each that means that the society has spent 56 million dollars
for treatment abroad. These indicate that society through cooperation can
build modern hospitals in the country. This is an economic-bleeding and it is
an issue that the public and the government should deal with.
 42 bore-wells were dug in 38 districts in different regions and 16 others were
 81 ordinary wells were also dug in the different regions
 13 large dams were built.
 Security
The world classifies security into three main parts- Security and defense armed
defense, peace and order.
Security and Defence
Thank God, Somaliland has armed forces that cannot that can be depended on,
strong, valiant, experienced heroes on which the national security, defense and
stability is relies on. The government and the people have the same vision to
prioritize security and the people of Somaliland are grateful for them and have
high esteem for them.
Rule of Law
Rule of Law can be achieved by raising the awareness and knowhow of the
people. This will help the society on how to solve difficulties they face; it will
unite them physically and mentally. This step will help achieve economic
development and create a good administration which brings about rule of law.
The government will secure the stability through raising their awareness and
understanding and will use its power to ascertain stability when required. Rule
of law, will help the society to have something in common, cooperate and trust


each other. That is the core which the Judiciary is interested with. The judiciary
is the binding factor of the society and as such it gives priority to:
 Protection of rights of citizens and equality
 Adjudication of disputes in the society
 Adjudication between the society and government
 And interpretation of legal disputes within government institutions
 Stability of the society can be realized by having equal opportunities for
employment, economy, education and support of the vulnerable groups in
the society. To realize this government has established National Service
Program to give opportunity for Somaliland youth. We have insisted Civil
Service Commission to give job opportunity in government institutions
through fair and equal competition, in order to avoid suspension and mal-
affect of in harmony of the society.
 To give special consideration for the vulnerable groups in the society
 Economic support was given to 32,000 families living in different
 18,976 girls were trained with different vocational skills and were
provided money to establish small business.
 Food and other goods were distributed to more than 70,000 IDPs
 $320,000 were distributed to 4,500 IDPs families
 Good Governance: we believe that good governance is one of the main
pillars which guarantee social security, development of the nation and the
realization of good governance for the government. It can also take part in
the structure and services the government provides for the public, therefore:
 A major reform was made in the National Auditor General System.
 Major steps were taken against embezzlement of public funds by
financial and administrative auditing on 72 government institutions.
31 public officials are accused and waiting on trail.
 5 billion SL shillings which were embezzled were returned to the
public treasury.
 Laws dealing with financial and administration investigation were


Although the government had made great efforts to decrease different kinds of
crimes in the country, it succeeded to some extent but hasn’t reached level it
aspires to reach.
– For example, 4,824 crime cases were brought to the court.
– The numbers of inmates in the prisons are 2,904 of which most of them are
– 377 cases were registered as theft.
– 142 cases are registered as rape.
– 535 crime cases were registered to be related to drug selling business
– 302 cases were registered as car accidents.
The government after seeing the enormous difficulties and the reasons behind
these crimes decided on ways of reducing this:
– Reducing poverty
– Awareness to be given by experts on crimes
– The government strengthening the law pertaining to control crimes, such as
car accidents and drug.
– The government will fight crimes related to murder, drugs and rape.
4. Elections
Somaliland is widely respected for its democracy, peace and stability. These are
two issues which regions in the country are not enjoying. We were implementing
free and fair elections, one-man-one-vote for the last 19 years. This has attracted
international respect and prestige. Thank God that we are ready to hold the dual-
election of the House of Representative and the local governments-which we have
waiting for a long time to be held after 83 days. The wind of the forthcoming
elections is blowing in all the regions of Somaliland.
We thank the House of Parliament, political parties, election committee, security
forces, candidates and the people of Somaliland for accepting to hold one-man-
one-vote election peacefully. This is a sign of the political maturity of Somaliland.


The government has prepared 132.6 billion SL. Shilling for voter registration and
When we begun the process of election, Somaliland’s friends promised to support
us financially. We have received the first part of their support of 50.1 billion SL.
Shillings. The financial support of 33.1 billion SL. Shilling was paid/to be paid by
UK, Sweden, EU. Taiwan paid 17 billion for the election fund.
The government of Somaliland has decided to hold the election because elections
decide the destiny of the people and that is our responsibility.

The numbers of candidates who have registered are 993. They have all gone
through the legal procedure in which their education, efficiency, the responsibility
were investigated. We commend them and we have respect for them. People who
play football say “the 2 colors of a ball is white and black.” Similarly the voting
card is “yes” and “no.” We have to know that only 331 candidates will have the
“yes” card.
83 days only have remained to Ballot Day, and we know the number of candidates
who will win. The only thing that we don’t know is their names and their
appearances. I would urge you knowing the number of those who will succeed to
accept the decision when the commission announce the resul and avoid unrequited
5. Foreign Policy
Foreign policy of Somaliland is based on good neighborliness, peace, mutual
respect and international cooperation. Last year, was a year of success for
Somaliland foreign policy. It was a year when Somaliland made trips to different
countries in Africa and was visited by different delegations from different parts of
the world.


For 30 years we were looking for recognition. We were advised that Somaliland
recognition is an African issue and has to go through AU. On the bases of that the
government has made connection with member states of African Union. The result
is that our cause has been supported by some and accepted by others.
Somaliland and Somalia dialogue
The government of Somaliland goal is to realize the independence of Somaliland
and as such it has decided to go to any forum and meet everyone where the issue of
Somaliland demand. We agreed to re-establish the dialogue between Somaliland
and Somalia which has been on hold or suspended for a long period.
As you are aware, we had a summit that was held in Djibouti. You are aware also
how at the International Forum, that the delegation I led had full confidence to
present the reality of our cause. We thank the President of Djibouti for organizing
the conference through experience full knowledge and neutrality.
Following that, the president of Kenya H.E. Uhuru Kenyatta invited us to his
country. You are aware of the reception and prestige the delegation I led was
You have seen and read the joint communiqué released by the two governments.
You are fully aware the enmity and hatred that came out of the government that
was ruling Mogadishu on that day and the decisions it has published. The position
of that government was not directed on the government of Kenya but it was
explicitly describing the hatred and enmity of that government has for the people
and the sovereignty of the Republic of Somaliland.
Ahead of that, you also remember the hatred and enmity it manifested against
Guinea when it invited us to its country.
I thank the presidents of Kenya and Guinea on their receptions and courageous
decisions reached.


This indicates the degree of hatred and enmity Somalia has for us. Fortunately, the
trips and talks we had last year had tangible results that Somaliland’s cause is an
international issue that cannot be denied.
We have through these visits got new friends in Africa and the rest of the world.
United Nations
Respect of Human Rights and the rights of nations for self-determination are the
foundation principles of the United Nations. It is unfortunate, that United Nations
doesn’t respect the principles of its foundations, regarding the wishes of the people
of Somaliland and the resolutions it decided when it reclaimed its sovereignty on
May 18, 1991.
The people of Somaliland decided to unilaterally pullout of the unity and establish
the Republic of Somaliland.
Somaliland has taken the road for peace, good governance, democracy, one-man-
one-vote elections and peaceful transfer of leadership. Unfortunately, the United
Nations didn’t raise any of these issues nor give acknowledgement, respect and
prestige which Somaliland deserves.
It is really surprising that some governments give recognition and financial support
to Somalia which has taken the road of distraction, chaos, political unrest and
We can say that these governments who supply weapons and economy to Somalia
have their interest which is far and different from what is the good for the people
of Somalia.
You are all aware today that the government whose term has expired and which
didn’t get any legal extension is ruling Mogadishu. That government hasn’t any
plan to hold elections and according to the media, international representatives
who are in Mogadishu haven’t so far clarified their position about the government
whose term has expired.
In addition to that, it is an intervention against Somaliland that the issue of
difference includes calling Members of Mogadishu Parliament to represent
northern regions. Somaliland states that it is clear aggression to call Members of


that Parliament to be representing Somaliland, when in reality they live in
I urge the People of Somalia not to allow or accept individuals who are
fugitive/deserters from their country.
Somaliland Citizens who are implicated in such behavior will be dealt with, in
accordance to the law.
Visioning and preparation of the future are educationally and economically
important for better life and the development of the country. Problems facing us
– Man-made problems such as (conflicts, desertification which cause
droughts, settlements and annexation of land in towns)
– Global climate change
– Modern technology has a lot of benefits but is harmful as well.
– Problems of Urbanization and the migration of people from rural areas to
urban areas.
The problems we have mentioned indicate that we have a lot of shortcomings to be
taken care of. It is an obligation for us living today to take the responsibility as a
government, intellectuals, businessmen, Ulima and elites to wake up and put the
basis for a better future for the coming generations and history.
What does Somaliland need in the next decade?
Somaliland focus its goal on the development of Somaliland Vision 2030; which
needs to be a democratic country that abides by law, stability, prosperity for all its
people and not for a few, and to be the beacon for education and civilization in
Ladies/Gentlemen, Good vision cannot be realized without effort and
polarization. It can be realized through cooperation, harmony, unity and


brotherhood. The people should hold each other’s hand and unite to achieve our
long vision and mission.
I pray for the people of Somaliland to have lasting success, prosperity and peace. I
commend the House of the Representatives and Local counsels which will hand
over their responsibilities. I would also welcome those who will be elected. I pray
for the election to be a good omen for development and peace.

Long live the Republic of Somaliland
Success for the people of Somaliland

Thank God


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