African colonial borders, like Arab World, Asia and South American colonial borders, were all drawn by European colonialism and are based on land and not on tribe, ethnicity or clan lineage. Subbclans of the same clan inhabit in different African countries due to colonial demarcations without considering clan lineage. That is why the Declaration of African Conference in 1964 of Reaffirming Colonial Borders was iissued to recognize and protect African colonial borders in order to prevent tribal secession wars seeking postcolonial reunifications that would plunge the whole continent of Africa into endless violence, anarchy, chaos and tribal bloody wars bringing down African states.

Existence, peace and stability of Africa depend on respecting, recognizing and implementing colonial borders which are unalterable or unchangeable. Colonial borders define the territory, people, independence and recognition of each African country. There is no single African country that made its own borders. Tribal armed factions driven by tribal emotions or tribalism, as happening now in Las Anod city of Somaliland, tried before to change African colonial borders by force to unite their clan or tribe after independence but all ended in failure because no country accepts to divide its territory as colonial borders are recognized and internationally legitimate.


Afar Clan inhabits in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djabouti. Tuareg Clan inhabits in Senegal, Nigeria, Mali and Niger. Fulani Clan inhabitis in Mali, Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon. Lunda Clan inhabits in Congo, Zambia and Angola. Yoruba Clan inhabits in Nigeria, Benin and Togo, Somali Clan inhabit in Djabouti, Somalia, Somaliland, Ethiopia and Kenya [Further Distribution of Somali Clan in the Horn of Africa: Dir inhabits in Somaliland, Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. Hawiye inhabits in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. Daarod inhabits in Somalia, Somaliland, Ethiopia and Kenya. Rahanwein inhabits in Somalia, Itoobiya and Kenya, Jareerwein inhabits in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya, Gabooye inhabits in Somaliland, Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya and so on].

No country or region in Africa has the right to claim the land of a subclan inhabiting in another African country for reasons of tribal lineage or ethnicity as Puntland Administration of Federal Somalia has been falsely claiming Sool of Somaliland Republic for awhile. Sool is part of Somaliland for being within the colonial borders of Somaliland Republic and the current conflict issue is between Somaliland government and the traditional leaders/politicians of Las Anod. Puntland is part of the adversarial tribal coalition and terrorists fighting in Las Anod to undermine Somaliland sovereignty and territorial integrity on tribal lineage reason. Somaliland government must not talk to Puntland Administration on Las Anod conflict to justify its tribal claim because it is a region of Federal Somalia which is also part of the problem. If necessary, only Somaliland government and Federal government of Somalia (At national levels) can talk together about the conflict in Las Anod to force Puntland to withdraw its troops and militia from Las Anod. The talks are not about clan lineage but about two countries. Puntland Administration is not different from Galmudug, Jubbaland, Hir/Shabeelle and South-West Administrations.

Colonial borders of Africa are unalterable and all are based on land. So are Somaliland borders. Somaliland territory cannot be divided, its colonial borders inherited from Somaliland British Protectorate cannot be altered or changed and tribal borders cannot be drawn in Somaliland to destroy its sovereignty and its territorial colonial borders. People can leave Somaliland Republic but a span of its territory cannot be taken away. Somaliland achieved independence before Somalia gaining international recognition on June 26, 1960. Somaliland recognition is a right like any other African country based on its own British colonial borders.

Author: Ibrahim Hassan Gagale
March 23, 2023


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