The criteria required from unrecognized state to prepare itself to be acknowledged as a sovereign state was set in different approaches according of the design and prioritization of different groups of political experts; but all are based on the Montevideo Convention of 1933.
Accordingly, it is necessary as a political analyst to see the case from each of its internationally accepted existing angles. Here is one criterion that constitutes a set of prerequisites that unrecognized states are to possess to achieve sovereignty. This is proposed by three well known political experts. The fundamental pillars with clarifications I made include:
The unrecognized state must first satisfy the international laws and rules set forth by international Conventions. – means remaining within the limits of international law; or to acknowledge and follow internationally accepted Rights and Duties needed from a State; like peace coexistence with the neighbor, human rights, free from any kind of oppression, child rights, freedom of the press, come into power through free and fair elections not through coup or using force, and many others.
The unrecognized state is to exist within a clearly defined territory. — means the land they control should have well known defined territory
The new country should show in action its intentions of being a new state – means this should occur either by administering its territory in full control by its own government; or by setting a referendum letting the world know that the people in the region decided to secede from its counterpart.
The consent of a dominant majority of the local population, permanently living on the territory. – means the unrecognized state should have common acceptance from all the permanent population living in the territory of its decision declaring as an independent state,
It has been a victim of genocide before declaration as an independent state; then their grievance is considered legitimate. – means if the decision to claim as an independent state was caused by a genocide or mass killings targeted to the population living in the new state by the rulers of the parent country.
Incompatibility with parent state (historical, religious, ethnic). — means the new state that declared itself as an independent state and the parent state to exist together in harmony any more in the future Could not be possible what so ever; because of bitter enmity by one of the above causes.
No potential security risks to the parent state. – means the recognition of a new state as an independent state will not be a security threat to the parent country.
Stand neutral from all political, sectarian and group alliances between existing countries (except under acceptable circumstances). – means use “friend for all policy” internationally and regionally; because the new state needs the support of every existing country.
Borders with third countries or an outlet to the sea. – means the unrecognized state’s territory should have borders with third country/countries or has an outlet to the sea; not locked from all sides by parent country’s land.
Economic and sociopolitical viability. – means its financial systems and Projects operating manners have a positive impact on the society’s livelihoods and the national development; and must be legitimate and transparent; free from wasteful irregularities, fraud and corruption.
A new state’s existence can be seen when it is recognized by existing country or countries within the international community. — means it should achieve 1st stage recognition (country recognition) even if it is only one country. This leads to a position that its case be considered and discussable.
Somaliland has met most of the requirements or possesses such qualities of the above except three: 1st – the last above mentioned pillar is still absent from the minds of our leaders, that a country recognition even of a single country can make our case legitimate to be discussed on the international or regional political tables. 2nd – Somaliland now moved from the neutrality position of its region’s conflicts; sided with one group of the conflicting alliances; to the extent that it gave military base to a group of the factions. Somaliland an unrecognized state searching and appealing recognition from the international community, at the same time deploying military base in its territory for some foreign powers, are two Incompatible actions. 3rd – Somaliland is now in a situation that the international community is very disappointed about how corruption on public assets and misuse of international donors’ grants supported to Somaliland rises to its peak nowadays.
Adam Ali Younis